During the course of the 15th century merchants from northern Germany began to expand their trading links with the North Atlantic islands of Shetland, the Faroes and Iceland. In the following two hundred years they became the most important trading partners for the islanders. Through these commercial links and the extensive exchange of goods and thoughts merchants, predominantly of Bremen and Hamburg, influenced the economy and culture of these islands. In this project, an interdisciplinary research team drawn from the disciplines of archaeology, history and archaeozoology investigates the many facets of these connections. A starting point is the so-called cog of Bremen, a shipwreck which today for many serves as a symbol of the Hanse period. The main objectives include: how did trade on the North Atlantic islands operate, and how was it regulated? How were the merchants and sailors linked together? Which ship types were in operation and how did these develop? Which effect did the long and close trade relations have on both parties?
Period: 1. February 2015 – 31. December 2018
Research and debate on migration and education are usually conducted from a present-day perspective. This project seeks to widen the view. Its aim is, first, to analyse the historicity of the ideas of society, social norms and values which have influenced debates around migration in the period commencing after 1945. Second, it points to the heterogeneity of migrants to Germany, including Holocaust survivors, those expelled from formerly German regions of eastern Europe, the “guest workers”, and asylum seekers. Third, the project explores strategies around practical responses to issues of migration. Germany shied away for a long time from defining itself as a society influenced by significant immigration; educational policy accordingly responded in a highly defensive manner to the challenges migration brought, which circumstance afforded crucial significance to actual social practices in schools. Overall, this project proceeds by analytically interlinking conventional top-down perspectives on politics with a bottom-up view of processes of negotiation and consensus-forming on the ground.
Period: 1. July 2015 – 30. June 2019
Population growth, the rising consumption of processed animal products as well as the use of agricultural commodities as energy sources will increase the demand for agricultural products. Given the scarcity of resources, the corresponding need of an increase in supply will challenge the global agribusiness. So far, we have been lacking a theoretically sound analysis of supply- and demand-related approaches for global food security which takes the interactions along the value chain, from the primary producer to the final consumer, into account and allows for robust conclusions about the functioning of globally connected agricultural markets. Based on the analysis of vertically related markets, this project investigates both theoretically and empirically the incentives for a sustainable increase in supply, the economic consequences of the competition between energy and agricultural production for land as well as the possibility of sustainable consumption patterns.
Period: 1. Juli 2015 – 31. October 2019
Can changes in fertility decisions of couples be attributed to demand-induced changes in labour market opportunities? Are people more likely to get married in economic recessions or in booms? Does youth unemployment affect intergenerational relations? To improve our understanding of the relationship between business cycles and family-related decisions in Europe, Ifo establishes the working group EcUFam (Economic Uncertainty and the Family). Deploying a variety of methods and datasets research on the extent and importance of economic uncertainty as induced by poor macroeconomic conditions for key family outcomes including fertility, marriage and divorce, intergenerational relationships, gender-role attitudes and infant health will be conducted. The working group is located at Ifo, but both the scope of its research as well as its scientific network will be European, with project partners and supporting institutions in Italy, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
Period: 1. July 2015 – 31. December 2019
Mineral dust is an important player in the climate system, but its spatiotemporal variability is not fully understood. This project makes complementary use of satellite data and numerical modelling for characterizing the atmospheric dust cycle. As an interpretation interface between models and satellite retrievals, Meteosat dust index images will be calculated from model data and analysed. To improve the representation of the dust cycle in models and thus the understanding of controls on its variability, dust emission schemes will be revisited and improved with emphasis on anthropogenic and alluvial dust sources in the frame of the proposed project.
Period: 1. March 2015 – 28 February 2019
Aquaculture sites, in particular open fish cage practices in tropical countries, are characterised by high bacterial abundances and potential pathogens, harmful algae blooms, and organic matter-rich particles which can cause extensive economic and ecological damage. Pathogen-laden particles pose great risk for human health and may be implemented in the field of disease ecology. This multi-disciplinary approach, which takes into consideration the holistic ecological and social-economic context, will help to improve current drawbacks in aquaculture practices in tropical countries. The outcomes will provide a solid basis for management strategies and risk assessment for human livelihoods, e.g. outbreak of diseases through aquaculture derived pathogens.
Period: 1. July 2015 – 30. June 2020